In January 331 BC A little blond man walked up and down there, seemed to carry out surveying and scattered lines with flour into the dark sand. Strange as that might seem, that was the reason why. Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia and, for a short time, Pharaoh of Egypt, had found here on the coast the ideal place for his new city: Alexandria. It is far from being the only city that Alexander founded and bears his name, but it is by far the most famous. One of Alexander's friends and followers, Ptolemy, made the city the capital of Egypt. For centuries it was to be the cultural and scientific center of the ancient world under him and his successors. Alexander had chosen the place with great care: The location on the Nile, the main traffic artery in Egypt, ensured the connection deep into the hinterland. A large and sheltered bay provided the conditions for a seaport and contacts throughout the Mediterranean. On the offshore island of Pharos should also be one of the seven wonders of the world: the lighthouse.